Fisheries have tended to dominate the discussion on utilization of marine bio-resources (it is a tough word but it essentially means natural resources such as animals and plants but not oil and minerals). However, in the north other resources are extremely important. Due to their high metabolic rate marina mammals and birds are in fact very abundant in cold places. It follows that they have always been very important resource for the people living in cold places.
Aquaculture has been increasing rapidly in the world. It is still not so important in the far north but lightly to the south especially salmon farming has grown rapidly. This phenomena is also moving north with warming climate.